Photogrammetry is the science, technology and art of obtaining reliable information from non contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation
Using photography, either taken from the ground, or aerial balloon.
AutoDesk 123D catch allows you to creates 3D models from series of photographs taken at various angles using photogrammetry.
In addition to represent, 3D Scanning affords a new way of looking at found materials using a computational design process. The following images are captured from a video I created by scanning the work of Austin Smith:
The following scan is of a piece of steel fencing and weather stripping. 3D Scanning affords a new reading of opacity / transparency, as well as patterns / rythms within this object: